# Summarising data using dot plots

March 26th, 2010

A dot plot is a type of display that compares counts, frequencies, totals or other summary measures for a series of categories. The dot plot can be arranged with the categories either on the vertical or horizontal axis of the display to allow comparising between the different categories as well as comparison within categories where there are multiple symbols used to denote say different years. Read the rest of this entry »

# Summarising data using bar charts

December 12th, 2009

A bar graph is a frequently used type of display that compares counts, frequencies, totals or other summary measures for a series of categories, e.g. sales in different market sectors or in quarters in a financial year. The bar graph can be laid out with the categories either on the vertical or horizontal axis of the display – depending on whether we consider making a vertical or horizontal comparison is easier for interpreting the graph. Read the rest of this entry »

# Creating scatter plots using ggplot2

November 6th, 2009

The ggplot2 package can be used as an alternative to lattice for producing high quality graphics in R. The package provides a framework and hopefully simple interface to producing graphs and is inspired by the grammar of graphics. Read the rest of this entry »

# Investigation the relationship between two variables using a scatter plot

October 13th, 2009

The relationship between two variables can be visually represented using a scatter plot and will provide some insight into the correlation between the variables and possible models to describe the relationship. There are different ways to produce scatter plots in R making use of either the base graphics system, the lattice graphics library, ggplot2 or other packages. Read the rest of this entry »

# Cleveland’s Dot Plots for Plotting Data

September 26th, 2009

The dot plot was introduced by Cleveland to provide a powerful visual display to compare groups of data and a function for this type of graphical display is available in the lattice library for R. Data is divided into groups and dots are used to indicate the value of a particular variable with the groups arranged either horizontally or vertically to allow a visual comparison of the distributions for the groups. Read the rest of this entry »

# Box and Whisker Plots for Summarising Data

August 11th, 2009

We have considered using a histogram to summarise univariate data but there are other types of plot such as the box and whisker plot that can be used summarised univariate data. The box and whisker plot is a graphical method for summarising numerical data based on a five-number summary. These five numbers are the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile and maximum value. Read the rest of this entry »

# Using Histograms to Summarise Data

June 8th, 2009

It is not only possible to use tabular displays to summarise a data set and we will often be interested in using a graphical display as this might be a more effective way to visualise our data rather than using statistics such as the mean or standard deviation. Read the rest of this entry »

# Cross-tabulation of Data

May 15th, 2009

The contingency table is used to summarise data when there are factors in the data set and we are interested in counting the number of occurrences of each combination of factor variables. In R there are different ways that these types of table can be produced and manipulated as required. Read the rest of this entry »

# Producing Data Summaries

May 11th, 2009

The first stage of most investigations is to produce summaries of the data to identify any unusual records and to get a overall feel for the contents of the data. This initial data analysis usually involves tabulation and plotting of data and there are a variety of functions available in R to generate the required summaries of interest. Read the rest of this entry »